We explain what pile foundations are, when and where pile foundations are used, types of pile foundations by function, use or material. Types of concrete piles, steel piles. Advantages and disadvantages of different types of piles and function, purpose of sheet piles, etc.
What is the pile foundation?
Pile foundation is a kind of deep foundation that is used when the bearing capacity of the soil is low, in underwater construction, the load on the structure is high, in places where a shallow foundation is not possible, etc.
When and where is the pile foundation used?
- The load (stress) of the structure is very high and its distribution on the ground is not uniform.
- The bearing capacity of the soil is small and the required bearing capacity is achieved at greater depths.
- The groundwater level fluctuates.
- build oneRaft or grid baseit can be very expensive or unfeasible.
- Cleaning the excavation pit is very difficult. (6) Drainage of water from a foundation ditch is very expensive.
- In the area where water pipes, sewage, gas, etc. will be installed in the future.
- If the structure is located on a beach or river bank and there is a possibility of foundation erosion due to flooding.
- foundation pileIt is useful for the foundation of the structure in the sea.
- Anchor piles are used to provide support against upward and lateral pressure on the structure.
- In marine structures such as piers, piers, and fenders, they are used to protect the structure from ship impact.
Types of foundation piles by function or use:
- pile of finishing material
- friction pile
- compression stack
- lot of stress
- anchor post
- fender stack
- best stack
- Magic wand
1. Terminate Support Post:
This type of pile is used to transfer loads of water or soft soil to the hard rock below. The charge is transferred to the bottom of the pile.
Qu = Qp is used for this stack.
2. Friction pile:
The surface of such a pile is kept rough so that the load is supported by friction (surface friction) generated between the surrounding soil and the surface of the pile.
For a friction stake, Q = Qs
Qu = final load on the pile Qs = surface friction
The bearing capacity of the friction pile can be increased as follows:
- Pile diameter increase
- Insertion of piles at greater depth.
- Roughening the surface of the pile.
- Holding a group of batteries.
3. Compression Stack:
When a pile is driven into granular soil to increase the bearing capacity of the soil, it is called a compaction pile.
The stake itself is not load-bearing and is therefore made of a weak material. Sand piles are commonly used as compaction piles, where a tube is inserted into the soil so that the soil around the tube undergoes lateral movement and soil compaction occurs, then the tube is slowly removed and filled with sand. . This is how the sand pile is prepared.
4. Battery voltage:
When a structure appears elevated due to groundwater pressure or overturning moment, a prestressing pile is used to hold the structure in the ground. Tensile strength is created in such a pile.
The tensile strength is due to the force of friction with the ground at the surface of the pile.
5. Anchor Post:
When a pile is used to provide anchorage against sheet pile shear pull or other tensile force, it is called an anchor pile.
6. Fender Stack:
A post used to protect a structure at sea from damage caused by abrasion or collision by a ship is called a fender post. These piles are usually made of wood.
7. Best Stack:
When the pile is driven into the ground to avoid horizontal or lateral forces, it is called a better pile.
8. Magic Wand:
The main function of the sheet pile is to separate two underground elements. These piles are not designed to support vertical loads.
Sheet piling is used for the following purposes.
- To separate the base from the side bottom.
- To stop the movement of groundwater, which is very necessary for cofferdams.
- To prevent the vibration of the machine from reaching the side frame.
- Construction of a maintenance wall for maritime works such as docks, shipyards.
- To avoid the erosion of the banks of the rivers.
- To support the sides of the base trench.
- Build a separate wall below the dam.
- Increases the absorption of the soil by wrapping it.
- To prevent erosion of the river foundation by river or sea water.
Types of stakes depending on the materials:
The different types of stakes depending on the materials are the following:
- concrete stakes
- steel poles
- pile of sand
- composite piles
1. Concrete stakes:
The concrete piles are made of R.C.C. Its compressive strength is very high.Types of concrete piles listed below.
2. Steel piles:
- H - beam stake
- stack of boxes
- stack of tubes
I. H - pile of rafters:
Rolled steel H beam is most commonly used as steel pile. Often these oars are used as pillars to keep them open at a certain height from the ground.
H-beam piles have a very small cross section and can be easily driven into the ground where normal posts are very difficult to drive into the ground.
These posts are best suited for digging deeper into loose soil and where regular posts are likely to damage surrounding posts.
After driving this stake to the required depth, its head is cut into squares and covered with a thick steel plate or concrete cap.
These piles are used in the construction of retaining walls, bridges, trestles, cofferdams, etc.
ii. stack of boxes:
Several proprietary box stacks are available. The stack is the stack of Larsen boxes. Let them be rectangular or octagonal. These stakes are made by assembling different steel profiles.
The stake is driven into the ground like any other stake. The bottom of the stack can be closed or open. The box is then filled with concrete. When the stack of boxes is inserted into the ground, it moves a large amount of ground, so the terminal resistance and friction resistance are greatly increased.
This type of pile can be used successfully when it is not possible to drive the H-beam pile in a rigid plane.
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iii. Bunch of tubes:
In this type of stakes, a tube or steel tube is inserted into the ground. These poles are also grounded with open or closed ends. The tubes have a diameter of 25 cm to 120 cm. The thickness of the tube wall varies from 8 cm to 12 cm.
Open stakes are normally used for hard layers of soil. Dirt inside the post is removed with a water jet or compressed air. After driving the stake to the desired level, fill the tubular stake with concrete.
The closed pile is generally used for loose soil. After the pile is lowered to the desired depth, it is filled with concrete. Due to its round cross section it can be easily inserted into the ground and replaced.
Advantages and disadvantages of steel piles:
- It easily resisted the forces generated by driving piles into the ground.
- Increases in the length of the pile can be made simply by welding.
- Additional lengths can be easily cut.
- The support capabilities of these piles are much higher.
- The battery can be easily replaced without damaging it.
- This pile has a high resistance to impact shock and is therefore very useful in shipbuilding.
- Such a pile will not be damaged by marine insects.
- Box piles save the cost of filling mortar or sand between piles.
- Steel piles are easily damaged by corrosion.
- The pile can be protected with paint, but this adds to the cost.
The woodpile is circular or square. The diameter of the round pile is from 30 cm to 50 cm. The square pile size is up to 50cm-30cm. The length of the pile should not be more than 20 times the width of its top to avoid bending.
The steel shoe is attached to the top of the post and the cast iron shoe is attached to the bottom of the post. If wood is used in a group of piles, a concrete cover is placed over all buckets. The best distance between two piles is 90 cm from the center. The load on the woodpile should not exceed 20 tons.
Advantages and disadvantages of the wood pile:
- These piles are economical where wood is readily available.
- Due to the lower weight, it can be easily transported without being damaged.
- Increasing the length of the pile or shortening it can easily be done at low cost.
- No heavy machinery or skilled supervisors needed.
- The stake can simply be driven into the ground.
- The battery can be easily removed when needed.
- Erosion of the flora by clay, seawater or insects.
- Such a pile cannot support a higher load and cannot be used as a final support pile.
- It is not possible to drive wooden stakes into hard layers of soil.
- It is difficult to get the required length and size from the cuttings.
- If the pile is not treated, its durability will be very low and its useful life will be reduced.
4. Composite pile:
In this type of stake, two different materials are placed in the ground one on top of the other and both stakes work together. ex - combination of wood and concrete
This combination of wood and concrete takes advantage of the durability of both concrete and less expensive wood.
The lower part of this column is made of wood.
Composite pile advantages and disadvantages:
- It's cheaper.
- It can be easily created.
- When other types of posts are not suitable, combined posts can be used depending on the type of soil.
- Pile strength is poor when the pile does not have a proper bond between two dissimilar materials when forming the pile.
In this type of stake, a hole is made in the ground and filled with sand. If the sand is surrounded, its bearing capacity is very high and it becomes incompressible.
The diameter of the sand pile is usually 30 cm. Drill holes in the ground with wooden stakes or closed stakes or drills. In this corridor, moist sand is filled and the sand is properly compacted. The top of the pile is filled with concrete to prevent sand from spilling out of the sand pile.
The sand pile is usually made under the structural column 2-3m center to center. The length of this stake should not exceed 12 times its diameter. Sand piles can support loads of up to 100 ton/m2.
Pros and cons of sand mounds:
- These piles are economical for small houses and roadside spillways.
- Easy to build.
- Gravel can be used instead of sand.
- There is no impact from groundwater or underground combustion.
- Such piles are not favorable for soft soils.
- Where erosion is possible, it is not suitable.
- It is not suitable for earthquake zone.
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What are different types of pile foundation? ›
- End bearing piles transmit loads directly to a deeper strong soil or rock layer some way below the surface.
- Friction piles transfer load by friction between the surrounding soil and the surface of the pile over its full length.
Depending on their function, piles are classified as bearing piles, friction piles, friction-cum-bearing piles, batter piles, guide piles, and sheet piles. Based on the composition of materials, piles are classified as timber piles, concrete piles, sand piles, or steel piles.What are the 4 types of piles? ›
Types of Piles (Haemorrhoids) Haemorrhoids can be grouped into four main types: internal haemorrhoids, prolapsed haemorrhoids, external haemorrhoids, and thrombosed haemorrhoids.What type of foundation is pile foundation? ›
Pile foundations are deep foundations. They are formed by long, slender, columnar elements typically made from steel or reinforced concrete, or sometimes timber. A foundation is described as 'piled' when its depth is more than three times its breadth.What are the types of pile foundation based on method of installation? ›
There are three types of pile foundations according to their construction methods which are driven piles, cast-in-situ piles, and driven and cast-in-situ piles.What is a pile foundation in construction? ›
Pile foundations are underground structures that support a building. Piles are long pillars that extend downwards into the ground to keep the building above them stable. They are typically used in situations where the top layer of soil is weak and unable to hold the weight of the building.What is the best types of pile foundations based on materials and construction method? ›
Concrete, steel and timber are the most common materials used to make piles for the driven pile foundation method. Concrete piles are precast before they arrive at a construction site. Similarly, contractors order prefabricated steel and timber piles that they can drill directly into the soil with a piling hammer.Which is the most common type of pile? ›
Due to their sometimes incredible length/depth, piles typically carry a higher load capacity than the aforementioned shallow footings. With most structures, concrete piles are more common than the other piles.What are the 3 types of load bearing piles? ›
End bearing piles (point bearing piles) Friction piles (cohesion piles ) Combination of friction and cohesion piles.What is end bearing pile foundation? ›
End bearing piles (also known as point-bearing piles) are used to distribute large foundational loads from the topsoil, which has a low bearing capacity, to the rock beneath, which has a much higher bearing capacity. Loads can also be transferred to strong stratum such as dense sand and gravel instead of rock.
What are Grade 3 piles? ›
Grade III hemorrhoids protrude outside the anal canal and usually require manual reduction. Grade IV hemorrhoids are irreducible and constantly prolapsed. Acutely thrombosed hemorrhoids and those involving rectal mucosal prolapse are also grade IV.What are the 7 types of foundation? ›
- Shallow Foundations. Made in depths as little as 3ft, shallow footings are also called spread or open footings. ...
- Individual Footings. ...
- Combined Footings. ...
- Strip Footings. ...
- Raft or Mat Foundations. ...
- Deep Foundations. ...
- Pile Foundations.
There are three main foundation types: full basement, crawl space and concrete slab.What are pile foundation generally used for? ›
Pile foundations are usually used to support structures with heavy, concentrated loads by transferring the load at the desired depth. Their load capacity derives from their end bearing and skin friction resistance.How many types of foundation are there? ›
The two major types of foundations are shallow foundations and deep foundations. Just as the models sound, they are measured by their depth in the soil and the load they can carry.What is the most commonly used foundation type in to construction? ›
The most common type of foundation is a slab foundation. It is also one of the most budget-friendly and straightforward to build. As the name suggests, it is a foundation of slab concrete that is around 6 to 8 inches thick. The concrete is poured into a gravel mixture in the soil's surface.What is the best type of foundation in construction? ›
1. Concrete Slab Foundation. A concrete slab is one of the most common types of house foundations, requiring the least amount of lot prep to begin building. Installation is simple compared to other house foundation types, making slab foundations popular among homeowners for their relatively low price tag.How deep are pile foundations? ›
What is the maximum depth? With the benefit of using pile joints, precast concrete piles can be driven to lengths longer than 30mx. Often concrete precast piles can be driven down to 30m, however, in special circumstances, such as offshore projects, piles can be driven down to a maximum of 150m.What is an example of a pile? ›
He had a pile of papers on his desk. Put those clothes in a pile for washing . I have a pile of mending to do. He found the piece of paper he had lost at the very bottom of the pile.What is the minimum depth of pile foundation? ›
All foundations shall extend to a depth of at least 50 cm below the natural ground level. The minimum depth of footing on sandy soil is 0.8 - 1 m, for rocky soil, it is 0.05 - 0.5 m and for clayey soil, it is 0.9 - 1.6 m. The minimum depth of foundation for the load-bearing wall is 900 mm.
What is the difference between friction pile and end bearing pile? ›
Friction piles (sometimes known as floating piles) work very differently to end-bearing piles. Rather than cut through soft soil to rest the weight on firmer layers down below, friction piles employ friction to disperse the weight load evenly throughout the surrounding soil, stretching the length of the pile.What is the pile spacing? ›
For piles founded on rock, the minimum center-to-center spacing is 2 times the average pile diameter, or 1.75 times the diagonal dimension of the pile cross section, but not less than 24 inches. An optimum spacing of 3 times the diameter of the pile is often used.Is pile foundation shallow or deep? ›
Pile foundations are deep foundations. They are formed by long, slender, columnar elements typically made from steel or reinforced concrete, or sometimes timber. A foundation is described as 'piled' when its depth is more than three times its breadth (ref.What is a displacement pile? ›
Generally, displacement piles are load-bearing columns designed to be installed without spoil material (soil that's removed from the ground). Instead, special equipment is used to displace soil laterally, compacting it into the surrounding terrain.What is Grade 1 piles? ›
Grade 1 - Hemorrhoid protrudes into the anal canal but does not prolapse outside the anus. Grade 1 hemorrhoids are internal hemorrhoids which do not prolapse, or protrude out of the anus.What is a grade 4 pile? ›
Grade 4 (severe) - A hemorrhoid(s) extends outside the anus and are not able to be manually pushed back inside. If you have this seek medical attention immediately. There are significant potential complications.How is Stage 4 piles treated? ›
For grade 4 hemorrhoids, the first-line approach is surgical. Surgery involves completely removing prolapsed internal hemorrhoids, a procedure known as hemorrhoidectomy.What are the 3 types of foundations? ›
There are three main foundation types: full basement, crawl space and concrete slab.What are the four most common types of foundations? ›
The four basic types of foundations— full basement, submerged crawl space, flush crawl space, and slab-on-grade—are shown in Figure 1-4. Of course, actual houses may include combinations of these types.What is the difference between drilled pile foundation and driven pile foundation? ›
Driven Piles: Foundation support typically using steel or precast concrete elements driven into soil with impact or vibratory methods. Drilled Shafts: Elements formed by creating a drilled hole into which structural steel and concrete is cast or placed.
What is the most commonly used foundation type? ›
1. Concrete Slab Foundation. A concrete slab is one of the most common types of house foundations, requiring the least amount of lot prep to begin building.What are the two main types of foundation? ›
Shallow foundations: Construction workers often use this type of foundation when the structure load is relatively low in comparison to the capacity of bearing of the surface soil. Deep foundations: Deep foundations are used when the surface soil's bearing capacity is not enough to support the structure's loads.What is the most typical type of foundation system used in residential construction? ›
The most common type of foundation is a slab foundation. It is also one of the most budget-friendly and straightforward to build. As the name suggests, it is a foundation of slab concrete that is around 6 to 8 inches thick. The concrete is poured into a gravel mixture in the soil's surface.What is the best type of building foundation? ›
Slab – The Most Popular Foundation Type
Your builder may need to do just a bit of excavating beforehand to create a usable surface. A slab foundation is a great option for warm and dry climates where frost depth won't be an issue. They also work perfectly for areas where water tables keep basements from being feasible.
Foundation is broadly divided into two categories: shallow foundation and deep foundation. The foundation to be chosen depends largely on the soil profile, as well as the size and load of the structure to be constructed. Shallow foundations are also known as spread footings.What is load bearing pile foundation? ›
Bearing piles are a kind of deep foundation system installed to support vertical loads by transferring the structure's weight to the soil below. Most commonly, steel pipes are used to create bearing piles. Bearing piles are necessary in one of two situations.What is the difference between foundation piers and pilings? ›
While piers are typically constructed in place, pilings are fabricated off-site. Additionally, piers can be made from wood, brick, or concrete, while pilings are only made from concrete and steel. Pilings are available in several different configurations.