foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (2023)

publish content

What is the base of the pile?

A pile foundation is a type of thin structural element made of steel, concrete, wood or composite material.

A stake can be driven into place by digging a hole and filling it with concrete or precast concrete driven into the ground. There are different types of pile foundations used in construction.

If there are no bearing layers close to the ground, the foundation of the structure must be deepened to obtain an adequate base layer in all respects.

The most common forms of deep foundations are:

  1. pile foundations
  2. Cassis or well foundations
  3. Ataguías

There are different Pile foundation types are used to transfer structural loads to a depth where the soil has the desired capacity to transfer the loads.

Piles are somewhat similar to columns in that loads developed at one level are transferred to a lower level, but piles are laterally supported by the soil they are embedded in, so there are no buckling issues.

This is where they differ from pillars. Batteries are relatively long. The piles can be driven or placed vertically or with a beater.

Pile foundations usually consist of multiple piles that together support the structure.

Keep reading: T

used pile foundation

Pile foundations are preferred in the following situations

  1. The load on the structure is heavy and its distribution is uneven.
  2. The top layer of soil is not very stable.
  3. Groundwater is high, so pumping water from open trenches into shallow foundations is difficult and wasteful.
  4. There are large fluctuations in groundwater levels.
  5. Where trench formwork is difficult and expensive.
  6. The structure is located by the sea or on a riverbed where there is a risk of collapse by water.
  7. Channel or deep drainage lines exit close to the foundation.
  8. Topsoil is naturally extended.
  9. The piles are used for the foundation of transmission towers, an offshore platform subject to lifting forces.

Keep reading: O?

Factors influencing the choice of pile foundations

When choosing types of pile foundations, the following factors should be considered:

  1. type of structure
  2. charge status
  3. Availability of Funds
  4. Availability of materials and equipment.
  5. Soil types and their properties.
  6. Water table level
  7. dead weight of the stack
  8. battery life
  9. stacking costs
  10. battery maintenance
  11. Required clip length
  12. Required Batch Numbers
  13. Case study of an adjacent building
  14. Pile driving facilities available
  15. Difficulty driving stakes

Types of pile foundations

A.Types of pile foundations according to their function or use

Batteries are classified according to their function as

  1. end of support post
  2. friction pile
  3. composite pile
  4. pile of stress
  5. anchor pole
  6. stack of mudguards
  7. best stack
  8. tablestaca

1. Last support post

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (1)

This type of foundation pile penetrates the soft soil and rests on the hard layer with its bottom or top.

These stakes act as pillars. The soft material around the pile provides some support. For supporting stake Qu = Qp

2. Friction pile

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (2)

If the foundation of the structure has loose soil, the friction piles are driven to such a depth that the frictional resistance developed on the sides of the piles is equal to the load hitting the piles. In general, a friction pile is used when hard foundation layers are present at greater depths.

3. Compression stack

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (3)

When piles are driven into loose granular soil to increase the bearing capacity of the soil, the arc of the pile is called a compaction pile. These types of pile foundations do not support any load.

4. Voltage pile

These types of foundation piles anchor structures subject to uplift due to hydrostatic pressure or overturning moment. It is also known as a lifting pole.

(Video) Pile Foundation and It's Types | Bridge Engineering | Lec - 05

5. Docking post

Anchor piles are used to resist horizontal tension from sheet piles or other pulling forces.

6. Lots of fenders

Defense piles are mainly used to protect coastal structures from the impact of ships or other floating objects.

7. Better Stack

They are used to withstand large horizontal forces or inclined forces.

8. Tablestacas

They are used as bulkheads or as a watertight cut to reduce seepage and lift under hydraulic structures.

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (4)

Sheet piles are used for the following purposes,

  1. To isolate the foundation from the adjacent ground.
  2. To prevent groundwater movement.
  3. To prevent transmission of machine vibrations to adjacent structures.
  4. For building a retaining wall on docks, piers and other marine structures.
  5. To protect the banks of rivers.
  6. For lateral protection of construction pits.

Keep reading: Difference between foundation and foundation

B. Types of foundation piles based on materials and composition

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (5)

1. Precast concrete piles

Precast concrete piles are those manufactured at the factory in a location far from the construction site and then buried in the desired location. Obviously, these types of pile foundations require heavy machinery to drive piles.

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (6)

Prefabricated piles can be square, octagonal or circular in cross section and can have tapered or longitudinally parallel sides.

Due to the stresses of driving and handling (i.e. transport and lifting), precast concrete piles are often reinforced.

The size of the pole can vary from 30 cm to 50 cm in width and up to 20 m or more in length.

Reinforcement can consist of longitudinal steel bars from 20 mm to 40 mm in diameter, from 4 to 8 pieces. with side loops 6 to 10 mm in diameter spaced 100 mm c/c for the top and bottom length of the film and spaced 300 mm c/c for the middle length.

A concrete coverage of at least 50 mm is foreseen. Concrete grade should be M20

2. Cast-in-place piles

With the concrete pile in situ, a hole is dug into the ground by inserting a casing. This hole is then grouted with concrete after placing the steel rebar, if any.

The case can be kept in place or removed. Piles with casing areas are known as cast-in-place piles and those without casing are known as cast-in-place piles without casing.

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (7)

1. Raymond Piles Foundation

Raymonds batteries They are primarily a friction pile type. It is designed with a smooth 1:30 taper, resulting in shorter stacks.

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (8)

Standard Reymond pole lengths range from 6 to 12 m. The diameter of the pole is 40 to 60 cm at the top and 20 to 30 cm at the bottom.

The stack consists of a thin layer of corrugated cardboard (lining) that is closed at the bottom. The steel jacket is reinforced with drawn wire wound in a spiral in an 8 cm pitch. It is one of the most important types of pile foundations.

The casing is driven into the ground with a collapsible steel mandrel or the core is removed with the same cone. When the pile is driven to the desired depth, the mandrel collapses and is mechanically removed, leaving the structure in the ground.

The bark is inspected from the inside with light from a mirror, flashlight, or overhead light. This empty shell is gradually poured upwards with concrete.

2. Many MacArthur

Mac Arthur is made from a serrated steel case of uniform diameter that stays in place, just like Raymond Piles.

A heavy steel box with a core is driven into the ground as shown in fig. These types of batteriesfoundationsThey are used when the desired depth is reached, the core is removed and a corrugated steel liner is inserted into the shell:

(Video) Foundation on Piles

Finally, the concrete is poured into the shell by progressive compaction and removal of the steel casing:

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (9)

3. Piles driven with CLT base

These types of foundation piles are made from a spiral welded sheet steel layer and the concrete plug is placed at the bottom of the piles.

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (10)

Pile driving is done by dropping the hammer into the concrete plug. The casing is compacted to the desired depth and then filled with concrete.

Keep reading: 9 types of building materials

4. Perforated piles

Stamped piles are used to advantage on some soils where piling is very difficult or where the tight casing must be left for some time before the hole is filled.Concrete.

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (11)

First, a steel jacket is placed on a precast concrete stud and a steel core is inserted into the stud that is not long enough to reach the stud.

In the second step, when the tube is above the plug until the core hits the plug, the tube is pushed through the cone of the plug, forming a seal.

In the third step, the tube is driven to a certain depth. Driving force is practically exerted through the core of the plug and the tube is pulled down rather than driven.

At the fourth stage, when the pile is driven to the desired depth, the core is removed and poured with concrete.

5. Bottom button stacks

These types of pile foundations are used where there is a need to increase the final support area. The stake uses a button-shaped concrete plug. This button forms an enlarged hole in the ground while driving.

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (12)

This type of pile can be used up to a length of about 23 m and for loads of up to 50 tonnes.

In the first step, a steel tube with a wall thickness of 12 mm is slid over the concrete knob. The diameter of the concrete button is 25mm larger than the diameter of the post.

In the second stage, the tube and button are driven to a specified depth. In the third step, the corrugated iron jacket is inserted into the tubes, resting on the handle.

In the fourth stage, the jacket is removed, leaving the button in place, and the trunk is filled with concrete. Reinforcement can be used if needed.

Uncoated in-situ concrete piles

These types of foundation piles do not use casing and are therefore less expensive. However, great skills are needed in construction.

These piles are used only when it is certain that neither earth nor water will fall into the hole, or contract and shrink the hole, and also when neighboring piles will not damage the fresh concrete.

Complete inspection of the installation is essential as inspection is not possible after installation.

The following are the types of in-situ concrete pile foundations:

  1. drivers simples
  2. Frankie oodles
  3. vibrating piles
  4. socket posts
  5. pressure cells

1. Simple Batteries

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (13)

Single stakes can be driven into soft or hard soil. With this type of pile, a tubular steel socket with a cast iron foundation is driven into the ground to the desired depth.

If necessary, rebar is placed in the pipe, then concrete is poured into the pipe and the pipe is slowly pulled out without tamping the concrete, leaving the cast iron foot.

In this type of pile foundation, if the concrete is compacted at regular intervals when the pipe is removed, the simplex compacted pile is obtained.

(Video) technology of building foundation beams with anti-slumping concrete piling solutions

2. Frankie-Stacks

With these types of piles, a plug of dry concrete gravel is formed at the surface of the soil by a heavy removable tube cap.

A drop hammer weighing about 20 to 35 KN is dropped freely onto the pin. This leads to the formation of a dense plug that penetrates the soil and pulls the pipe with it due to the friction developed between the concrete plug of the pipe.

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (14)

When the pipe is reduced to the desired depth, the pipe is held in place by cables and the hammer is applied to the concrete plug, forcing it down and out. This adds to the mushroom-shaped base.

If necessary, a new batch of semi-dry concrete should not increase the onion.

From there, the well is made by driving successive loads of concrete, compacting each one in turn and gradually removing the casing approximately 300mm at a time. Ripples form on the surface of a complete pile.

The pole diameter on Frank poles ranges from 50 cm to 60 cm, while the flared base can be around 90 cm in diameter. The pile has a load capacity of 60 tons (660 kN) to 90 tons (900 kN).

In the next step, the pit is created by successively introducing loads of concrete. Remove each one in turn, gradually removing the casing about 300 mm at a time. Ripples form on the surface of a complete pile.

3. Vibrating batteries

These types of pile foundations are used where the soil is soft and therefore offers little frictional resistance to concrete flow. The standard and spreader pile can be driven using the vibro method.

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (15)

These piles are formed by driving a steel tube and foundation, filling it with concrete, and removing the steel tube.

Standard vibropiles are manufactured in 45 and 50 cm diameter sizes for loads from 60 to 70 tons. They can be formed into lengths of 25 m and more.

A steel tube with a cast-iron shoe at the bottom is driven by a 2 to 2.5 ton hammer, which uses steam or compressed air to deliver up to 40 blows per minute with a stroke of about 1.4 m.

4. Pedestal stack

These types of stakes are used where a fine base course of reasonable depth is achieved. On this comparatively thin foundation, the base pile acts as an extended foundation.

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (16)

The core and sheath are driven into the ground together until they reach the desired level.

The core is removed and a load of concrete placed in the tube. The core is reinserted into the box to rest on the poured concrete; The core applies pressure to the concrete while removing the casing. The process is repeated until the sheath is completely removed.

steel stakes

  1. H - Stack
  2. stack of boxes
  3. tubular piles
foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (17)

1.H - Batteries

These types of foundation piles usually have wide flange sections. They are suitable for scaffolding constructions where the piles protrude above the surface of the earth and at the same time act as supports.

Because of their small cross-sectional areas, they can therefore be easily driven into soils where common displacement piles are difficult to drive. They are used as long piles with a high bearing capacity.

2. Pile of Boxes

They have a rectangular or octagonal shape and are filled with concrete. These types of batteryfoundationsThey are used when it is not possible to drive He piles on hard strata.

3. Tube piles

In this type, steel pipes or tubes are driven into the ground. Concrete is poured onto the tubular piles. Because its circular piles are easy to handle and drive. cross section, these types of pile foundations are easy to drive and tap.

wood pile

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (18)

These stakes are made from tree trunks. They can be round or square. These types of wooden posts range in diameter from 30 to 50 cm and in length no more than 20 times their top width.

A cast iron shoe is provided at the bottom and a steel plate is fixed at the top. When a group of wooden piles is compacted, the top of each pile is brought to the same level and then a concrete cap is provided to have a common platform.

Pile types of foundations have lower load capacity and are not durable unless treated.

(Video) Easy Screw Foundations

composite piles

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (19)

The hole is then filled with sand and compacted well. The sand to be used must be wet at the time of introduction.

The top of the sand pile is mostly covered with concrete to limit upward ejection due to lateral pressure.

Sand piles are spaced 2-3m apart, usually under structural pillars. To determine the load capacity of a sand pile, a load test must be performed. A properly constructed sand pile supported by solid strata can support a load of 100 tonnes/m2 or more.

The length of the sand piles is kept to about 12 times their diameter. The diameter of the sand pile depends on the load acting on the pile.

C.Stack classification according to installation method:

According to the installation method, batteries can be classified as follows

1. batteries

These stakes are usually driven into the ground with a heavy hammer. Mainly precast concrete, wood and steel piles are driven, which can be driven vertically or inclined.

2. Piles driven and placed on site

These types of pile foundations are formed by driving a casing with a closed lower end into the ground. The casing is then filled with concrete. The case can be removed or not.

If the lining is not removed from the pile, it is called an unlined pile, and if the lining is not removed, it is called a pile with a lining.

3. Piles drilled and placed on site

These types of pile foundations are formed by digging a hole in the ground and filling it with concrete.

4. Screw piles

These types of pile foundations are screwed into the ground.

5. Raised stakes

These types of pile foundations are driven into the ground by applying a downward force using a hydraulic jack.

6. Under dug piles

foundation piles | Types of foundation piles | Use of pile foundations (20)

These types of pile foundations are used by the C.B.R.I. to be used as a base for black cotton soil, filled soil and other types of soil with low bearing capacity.

ANDsquareveryIt is a cast-in-place hollow pile that has one or more bulbs or reamers at the bottom. Bottom ridges or reamers are formed by the bottom reamer tools.

Expanded cuttings are generally 20 cm to 50 cm in diameter and the diameter of the nodules varies between 2 to 3 times the diameter of the cutting. The length of the drilled piles is about 3 m to 8 m.

The spacing between posts can vary between 2 m and 4 m. Milled piles can also be used in sandy soils with a high water table.

The bearing capacity of the flared piles can be increased by using larger piles or diameters, or by increasing the length of the piles, or by making more shoulders at the base.

In general, a single stack under the ream can have one or more pistons. When two or more bulbs are provided in the base, this is known as a multi-bulb perforated stack. The vertical distance between two bulbs varies between 1.25 and 1.50 times the bulb diameter.

You might like...


share this post

(Video) Pile foundations - When to use a pile foundation on structures.


How do you calculate the number of pile foundations? ›

Pile capacity is calculated as the shear strength of the soil multiplied by the surface area multiplied by the adhesion factor. This is then added to the shear strength of the base material multiplied by the base area, multiplied by the bearing capacity factor.

What are piles in pile foundation? ›

Piling is the process of driving or boring pile foundations into the ground beneath a building that is under construction. These piles transfer loads from the structure to the ground, helping to support it. Pile foundations are often used where the ground is too weak to underpin the structure.

What are the three types of piles? ›

Types of Piles (Haemorrhoids) Haemorrhoids can be grouped into four main types: internal haemorrhoids, prolapsed haemorrhoids, external haemorrhoids, and thrombosed haemorrhoids.

What are the 4 types of foundations? ›

The four basic types of foundations— full basement, submerged crawl space, flush crawl space, and slab-on-grade—are shown in Figure 1-4. Of course, actual houses may include combinations of these types.

What is pile formula? ›

(8.11) f = k p o tan ϕ k=coefficient of lateral earth pressure (ratio of horizontal to vertical normal effective stress), ϕ=friction angle between the soil and pile wall.

How many piles do I need? ›

At least three capped piles are needed to ensure stability against lateral forces (with the exception of caisson piles). Capping beams are also suitable for distributing the weight of a load-bearing wall, or of close-centred columns to a line of piles.

When would you use a pile foundation? ›

Pile foundations are underground structures that support a building. Piles are long pillars that extend downwards into the ground to keep the building above them stable. They are typically used in situations where the top layer of soil is weak and unable to hold the weight of the building.

How do pile foundations work? ›

The process of drilling or driving a pile foundation into the ground displaces the soil into the surrounding area. This creates a tight space for the pile to sit and the friction created by the pile being in place helps the steel to transfer the weight energy it supports into the surrounding ground.

What is the difference between pile foundation and deep foundation? ›

Pile foundations are of great depth. Pier foundations are of shallow depth. Pier foundation is used where top strata consist of decomposed rock, stiff clays. The types of pile foundation are end-bearing piles, friction piles, compaction piles, anchor piles, tension or uplift piles, sheet and batter piles, etc.

Why is it called piles? ›

In the case of piles, experts believe it comes from the Latin word pila. Pila roughly translates to “balls.” If you ever see an inflamed hemorrhoid, you will understand this nickname much better. Many hemorrhoids do, in fact, appear as small round balls.

What is the other name for pile foundation? ›

Driven piles, also known as displacement piles, are a commonly-used form of building foundation that provide support for structures, transferring their load to layers of soil or rock that have sufficient bearing capacity and suitable settlement characteristics.

Which is the most common type of pile? ›

Due to their sometimes incredible length/depth, piles typically carry a higher load capacity than the aforementioned shallow footings. With most structures, concrete piles are more common than the other piles.

What are the 7 types of foundation? ›

The Different Types Of Foundations
  • Shallow Foundations. Made in depths as little as 3ft, shallow footings are also called spread or open footings. ...
  • Individual Footings. ...
  • Combined Footings. ...
  • Strip Footings. ...
  • Raft or Mat Foundations. ...
  • Deep Foundations. ...
  • Pile Foundations.

What are the two main types of foundation? ›

Shallow foundations: Construction workers often use this type of foundation when the structure load is relatively low in comparison to the capacity of bearing of the surface soil. Deep foundations: Deep foundations are used when the surface soil's bearing capacity is not enough to support the structure's loads.

How do you calculate pile spacing? ›

For piles founded on rock, the minimum center-to-center spacing is 2 times the average pile diameter, or 1.75 times the diagonal dimension of the pile cross section, but not less than 24 inches. An optimum spacing of 3 times the diameter of the pile is often used.

What is the max spacing between piles? ›

It is hence mentioned that the minimum spacing should not be less than the diagonal dimension or the diameter of the pile. The end bearing piles that are used in compressible soils must be spaced at a minimum of 2.5d and a spacing of 3.5d(Maximum)for those piles placed on less compressible or stiff clay soil.

How do you calculate piles design? ›

Two widely used methods for pile design will be described: • α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity (total stress) of piles in cohesive soils, • β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity (effective stress) of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils.

What is the minimum number of piles required to support a column? ›

It is always better to have 3 piles which will have stability in all directions.

What is the minimum number of piles in a pile group? ›

Minimum number of piles required for group action is three (3). or the circular. the individual bile so settlement of pile group is generally greater than the settlement of individual pile to same boding. consolidation settlement.

How deep should a pile foundation be? ›

Generally a depth of 700mm is acceptable, as long as the ground has adequate bearing capacity. If the water table is high (for instance if the gravel is submerged), the bearing capacity will be halved, so it's important to keep the foundations as high as possible.

Why pile foundation is better than shallow foundation? ›

Pile foundations transfer building load to the bearing ground with the greater bearing capacity. Pile foundations are useful in regions with unstable upper soil that may erode, or for large structures. Pile foundations are often required to resist lateral loading.

How long does pile foundation last? ›

For example: • Temporary Works: typically do not exceed 10 years. Inland Structures, such as basements, retaining walls, bearing piles can exceed 125 years. Structures located in seawater environments: 50 years is typical.

Can pile foundation fail? ›

Pile foundation has large bearing capacity, well stability and small differential settlement compared to other foundation types. But pile foundations may also get damaged and fail specially during earthquakes. The failure of the pile foundation may result from any of the following causes: Lack of adequate boring.

How do you place a pile foundation? ›

There are the following stages of concrete pile construction,
  1. Marking.
  2. Inserting the casing.
  3. Drilling of bore.
  4. Clearing the bottom.
  5. Inserting the reinforcement cage.
  6. Concreting.
  7. Chipping off.
  8. Leveling.

What are the 3 types of deep foundation? ›

Types of Deep Foundations
  • Driven Piles. Driven Piles usually consist of; Timber Piles, Concrete Piles, Steel Piles. ...
  • Drilled Piers. Drilled Piers include Augercast Piers, Helical Piers. ...
  • Specialty Piles. ...
  • Follow Us and Like Us:
Feb 18, 2020

What are the types of foundation? ›

There are five main foundation types and a handful of important variations.
  • Basement Foundation. ...
  • Crawlspace Stem Walls. ...
  • Concrete Slab Foundations. ...
  • Wood Foundations. ...
  • Pier and Beam Foundations.
Jul 2, 2020

What is the full meaning of piles? ›

Piles are called Haemorrhoids in medical terminology. They are swellings within the rectum or around the anus that consist of enlarged and swollen blood vessels. Piles in majority of cases are mild and most people are unaware of their existence.

What are piles called in America? ›

Hemorrhoids (HEM-uh-roids), also called piles, are swollen veins in your anus and lower rectum, similar to varicose veins. Hemorrhoids can develop inside the rectum (internal hemorrhoids) or under the skin around the anus (external hemorrhoids). Nearly three out of four adults will have hemorrhoids from time to time.

What is the synonym of piles? ›

nounabundance; a lot. gobs. heaps. horde. jillion.

Is pile foundation a deep foundation? ›

Pile foundation, a kind of deep foundation, is actually a slender column or long cylinder made of materials such as concrete or steel, which are used to support the structure and transfer the load at desired depth by either end bearing or skin friction.

How are pile foundations classified? ›

Pile Foundation

Foundations are classified mainly as Shallow foundations and Deep foundations. Shallow foundations are used where the load imposed by a structure are low relative to bearing capacity of surface soils.

What is the best types of pile foundations based on materials and construction method? ›

Concrete, steel and timber are the most common materials used to make piles for the driven pile foundation method. Concrete piles are precast before they arrive at a construction site. Similarly, contractors order prefabricated steel and timber piles that they can drill directly into the soil with a piling hammer.

What is the most common foundation? ›

The most common type of foundation is a slab foundation. It is also one of the most budget-friendly and straightforward to build. As the name suggests, it is a foundation of slab concrete that is around 6 to 8 inches thick. The concrete is poured into a gravel mixture in the soil's surface.

What is the most commonly used foundation type? ›

1. Concrete Slab Foundation. A concrete slab is one of the most common types of house foundations, requiring the least amount of lot prep to begin building.

What is the 5 parts of foundation? ›

A foundation transfers the load of a structure to the earth and resists loads imposed by the earth. A foundation in residential construction may consist of a footing, wall, slab, pier, pile, or a combination of these elements.

What is the strongest type of house foundation? ›

Poured concrete is the strongest type of foundation for a house. Concrete is incredibly strong and durable, and it can be poured into any shape. This makes it ideal for supporting the weight of a house. Block foundations are also very strong, but they are not as flexible as poured concrete.

Which foundation type is best? ›

A liquid base is the way to go. They “are very easy to blend, [some even] hydrate your skin and are long lasting,” says Mumbai-based celebrity makeup artist Savleen Manchanda.

What is the best foundation for loose soil? ›

Sand and Gravel Soil

Sand containing gravel has large particles that drain easily. When mixed with gravel and other materials, sand does not retain water. This means there is less risk for the building to shift around. Compacted sand and gravel offer even more stability and are a great option to build a foundation.

What are the two main types of foundations used for most modern structures? ›

Engineers typically opt for mat foundations in high-load situations, meaning the weight from the structure distributed to foundation walls and columns is heavier. Raft foundations help prevent uneven settling that individual footings can experience.

What are the basics in foundation? ›

A home's foundation is in direct contact with the ground and joins the building's structure with the underlying zone of soil or rock. The foundation's job is to transfer the structure's load to the underlying soil or rock, without excessive settlement or movement.

What makes a good foundation? ›

The components of a strong foundation are: Strong, flood-damage- resistant, and decay-resistant materials (reinforced concrete or preservative treated wood). Elements sized for appropriate structure loads and local soil conditions.

What is the formula for calculating foundations? ›

As per Rankine's formula the minimum depth required, The depth of foundation as provided = 3 x 0.15 + 0.20 = 650 mm, safe.

How are piles measured? ›

When the contour is created, the height is measured every (n), beginning from the furthest left corner of the pile. So, if there's a pile with a width of 2.4 meters and the frequency is set to 1 meter, then the height is measured at 1 meter and 2 meters as measured from the left corner of the pile.

What is thumb rule for foundation? ›

Thumb Rule for Foundation

A minimum 10mm bar shall be used for foundation footing. M20 grade of concrete or above should be used for foundation. Length, width and depth of foundation should not be less than 1 meter. Footing thickness should not be less then 40 cm.

How do you calculate bearing capacity of a foundation? ›

(q - qo ) x B x ½B = s x p. B x B. Net pressure (q - qo ) at failure. = 2 p x shear strength of the soil.

What is the maximum spacing between piles? ›

It is hence mentioned that the minimum spacing should not be less than the diagonal dimension or the diameter of the pile. The end bearing piles that are used in compressible soils must be spaced at a minimum of 2.5d and a spacing of 3.5d(Maximum)for those piles placed on less compressible or stiff clay soil.

What is the minimum spacing between two piles? ›

IS:2911 (Part-I)-1979 recommends a minimum spacing of 2.5 times the shaft diameter for point bearing piles, 3 times the shaft diameter for friction piles, whereas in loose sands or fill deposits, a minimum spacing of 2 times the diameter of the shaft is suggested.

What is the minimum distance between pile foundation? ›

Minimum spacing between the center lines of helical piles shall be four times the largest helix plate diameter.

What is the maximum depth of pile foundation? ›

What is the maximum depth? With the benefit of using pile joints, precast concrete piles can be driven to lengths longer than 30mx. Often concrete precast piles can be driven down to 30m, however, in special circumstances, such as offshore projects, piles can be driven down to a maximum of 150m.

How is depth of foundation decided? ›

Explanation: Rankine's formula provides the guidance on the minimum depth of foundation based on bearing capacity of the soil. Where, Df = minimum depth of foundation, qu= ultimate bearing capacity of the soil, γ = density of soil, = angle of repose or internal friction of soil.

What is the minimum depth of a foundation? ›

Foundations should be placed at least 450mm below the finished ground level to avoid the risk of the bearing strata freezing and causing damaging movement.

What is the maximum size of piles? ›

The maximum obtainable length of timber piles is of the order of 110 ft, but lengths over 80 ft are scarce. The normal length of available timber piles is 30 to 60 ft.

What is pile foundation size? ›

Diameters vary from 325 to 600 mm. Franki Pile: A steel tube is erected vertically over the place where the pile is to be driven, and about a metre depth of gravel is placed at the end of the tube.


1. Learn What are the 5 Main Types of Foundations in the UK
(Build It and Prosper)
2. Types of foundation part 3, Deep Foundation , Pile foundation, Pile Foundation Based on Function.
(Study With Architect Niteen)
3. Classification of Piles Based on Function || Pile Foundation || Deep Foundation || Foundation #9
(Anime_Edu - Civil Engineering Videos)
4. Deep Foundations Piles ,Drilling , Cage Lowering , Tremie Pipe
(Surveying Engineering Design Information)
5. Animation of 60R Screwpile + concrete ring beam foundation installation
6. Helical Piers (Screw Piles) - Pros, Cons, and FAQs


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Chrissy Homenick

Last Updated: 08/03/2023

Views: 5770

Rating: 4.3 / 5 (54 voted)

Reviews: 85% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Chrissy Homenick

Birthday: 2001-10-22

Address: 611 Kuhn Oval, Feltonbury, NY 02783-3818

Phone: +96619177651654

Job: Mining Representative

Hobby: amateur radio, Sculling, Knife making, Gardening, Watching movies, Gunsmithing, Video gaming

Introduction: My name is Chrissy Homenick, I am a tender, funny, determined, tender, glorious, fancy, enthusiastic person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.