The main difference between plant cell and animal cell. (2023)

The basic component of a living organism is the cell. Cells without a nucleus are classified as prokaryotic cells while those with a nucleus are classified as eukaryotic cells. The cells found in all evolved animals and plants are eukaryotic cells. Components like mitochondria, nucleus etc. They play an important role in plant and animal cells. The article is mainly concerned with giving the reader more clarity about the differences between the properties of plant and animal cells.

The main difference between plant cell and animal cell. (1)

plant cells
Most plant cells are present with an apparent nucleus and could therefore be referred to under the classification of eukaryotic cells. The genetic material, such as the chromosomes in the plant cell, is well conserved in the cell nucleus. The shape of plant cells is large compared to animal cells. The presence of a cell wall gives plant cells a specific shape, such as a cube or a rectangle. Inside the cell wall is the cell membrane of plant cells. The presence of a cell wall is one of the most salient features of the plant cell, distinguishing it from the animal cell. Various enzymes and cellulose form the main components of the cell wall. There are some specific organelles that are unique to plant cells. These would take over important metabolic functions in the plant body, which are crucial for their survival. The crucial characteristics of plant cells are described in the section below this report on animal cells versus plant cells.

The main difference between plant cell and animal cell. (2)

  • Presence of large vacuoles in the cytoplasm that help the plant cell store various minerals and the necessary water.
  • The presence of unique organelles such as large vacuoles, plastids, chloroplasts and cell walls.
  • It is the presence of chloroplasts in plant cells that help carry out the process of photosynthesis.
  • The high degree of rigidity and structural support present in plants through the contribution of cell walls.
  • The necessary nutrition in plant cells is possible thanks to the presence of plastids in them.

Various roles played by organelles in a plant cell.
These organelles often take the form of arranged or stacked coins protected by double membranes. The task of photosynthesis is completed as soon as it contains the pigment chlorophyll. The organelle is elongated in shape and is the chlorophyll pigment that gives leaves and other parts of plants their green color. Light energy is converted to chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis in chloroplasts.


The main difference between plant cell and animal cell. (3)

cell wall
The rigidity and specific shape of the plant cell are provided by the presence of a cell wall. The cell wall consists mainly of three different membranes. These three membranes are referred to as the primary cell wall, secondary cell wall, and middle lamina, respectively. The cell wall is outside of the cell membrane, giving it high structural support. The main function of the cell wall is to protect the cell from infection by giving it good resistance, strength and protection.

cell membrane
Inside the cell membrane, the cell's organelles are packed with the cytoplasm. Generally speaking, the cell membrane is the outer covering of the cell. The cell membrane is semi-permeable, allowing the nutrients necessary for its growth to pass through very easily. The membrane would prevent the passage of unnecessary material inside the plant cell.

We hope that you now have a detailed understanding of the properties of plant cells. Let's take a detailed look at the properties of animal cells.

animal cells
The presence of the nucleus in animal cells also classifies them into the category of eukaryotic cells. Animals have custom organelles that give them a very different trait. There are certain metabolic activities that must be maintained in animal cells that are critical to maintaining the balance of life. The main difference between plant cell and animal cell is the absence of chloroplast and cell wall.

Main characteristics of animal cells

The main difference between plant cell and animal cell. (4)


  • The basic activities of animal cells are controlled by the genetic material contained in the nuclear membrane. In accordance with the messages from the nucleus, various organelles carry out metabolic activities.
  • It is the mitochondria in the animal cell that drive the process of energy production. Mitochondria are also known as the cell's power plants.
  • The presence of organelles such as centrosomes divides the DNA material into identical pairs during cell division.
  • The transport process takes place in the animal cell by vesicles. Through the activities of the vesicles, the proper metabolism in the cell is maintained through the coordinated activity of various organelles.
  • There are various labyrinths of sac membranes in the cell, mainly classified as endoplasmic reticulum. These organelles are also called cisterns in cytology. Protein synthesized by ribosomes is transferred into cells through the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Protein synthesis is initiated by tiny organelles called ribosomes.

The main functions performed by different organelles in the animal cell.
Every animal cell is packed under a cell membrane made up mostly of phospholipids. The composition of two fatty acid molecules with that of glycerol is closely related to that of phosphate-headed phospholipids. When animal cells are present in the hydrated environment, the double membrane is formed. The main reason for this is the presence of fatty acids and phosphate heads. The cell's outer membrane is not fully permeable to all surrounding elements and only allows selected factors such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, etc. to pass through. This is a crucial component to maintain the state of homeostasis throughout the cell.

Every basic activity necessary to sustain life and proper metabolism takes place within the animal cell. These activities include the crucial processes like DNA replication, energy storage, transport of essential nutrients, etc. In an animal cell, each organelle has a precise role to play.

Comparison between plant cell x animal cell
The main similarities between the plant cell and the animal cell.
Because both animal and plant cells fall under the same category of eukaryotic cells, they share some functional similarities with one another. The most obvious similarities between plant cells and animal cells are the presence of organelles such as peroxisomes, mitochondria, nuclei, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, and lysosomes. The cytoskeleton and cytosolic elements comprise important parts of plant and animal cells. The functional principles that plant cells follow compared to animal cells are similar to each other.

Let's focus on some of the main differences between a plant cell and an animal cell.

The main differences between the plant cell and the animal cell.
If you consider plant cells and animal cells at the same time, the size of the plant cell can be much larger than that of the animal cell. The size of cells in plants is observed to range from 10 to 100 microns. On the contrary, the size of the animals ranges from 10 to 30 microns. Some of the most important structural and functional differences between plant cell and animal cell are mentioned in the next section of this article.

Are chloroplasts present in animal cells?
The presence of chloroplasts is mainly observed in plant cells as they are very important for photosynthesis. Animals are unable to produce their own food and depend primarily on other living things for their food and energy needs. Therefore, the importance of chloroplasts in animal cells is much less.

The energy production process in plant cells compared to animal cells
The energy production process in animal cells is mainly carried out by mitochondria. It is a fact that the role of mitochondria in plant cells is not the same as in animal cells. The main method of energy production in plant cells is photosynthesis using sunlight.

(Video) Difference Between Plant Cell And Animal Cell

Is there a cell wall in animal cells?
No, the cell wall organelle is not present in animal cells. The main highlighted difference between plant cells and animal cells is the presence of cell walls. It is the extra cell wall outside of the plant cell membrane that gives it a larger size compared to the animal cell. The cell wall is mainly found with a thickness ranging from 0.1 microns to 10 microns and consists mainly of fats and various sugars (mainly cellulose).

Presence of vacuoles in plant cells compared to animal cells.
While large vacuoles are seen in plant cells, vacuoles are absent in animal cells. Plant cell vacuoles play an important role in the digestive process and are also a kind of gap filler in the cytoplasm. In many plant cells, vacuoles also play a role in storing important nutrients and minerals.

For a better understanding between the plant cell and the animal cell, we present a table indicating the presence of different organelles in two different cells.

The main difference between plant cell and animal cell. (5)


animal cells

plant cells




cell wall






cell membrane



I'm sure












Golgi complex



Endoplasmatisches Retikulum






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The main difference between plant cell and animal cell. (6)

(Video) Plant Cell vs Animal Cell | 3 Key Differences

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(Video) Plant cell vs Animal cell ( Compare and Contrast )

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What is the main difference between plant cell and animal cells? ›

Animal Cells versus Plant Cells

Animal cells each have a centrosome and lysosomes, whereas plant cells do not. Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts and other specialized plastids, and a large central vacuole, whereas animal cells do not.

What is the main difference between an animal and a plant? ›

The main difference between plant and animal cell is that plant cells possess plastids called chloroplasts which are dedicated organelles to convert solar energy to chemical energy i.e. photosynthesis. This makes plants autotrophic i.e. they can make their own food.

What are the main differences between plant and animal cells quizlet? ›

Plant Cells have a Cell Wall and a Cell Membrane; Animal Cells only have a Cell Membrane. Animal Cells have a Cytoskeleton, but Plant Cells do not. Plant Cells have Chloroplasts, but Animal Cells do not. Plant Cells have a large central water Vacuole; Animal Cells only have small Vacuoles.

What are the differences between plants and animals answers? ›

1. Plants cannot move from one place to another. They are anchored to the soil.1. Animals can move from one place to another.
2. Plants prepare their food with the help of chlorophyll and sunlight.2. Animals cannot prepare their own food. They move in search of food from one place to another.
5 more rows

What are the differences between plants and animals Question Answer? ›

Answer 1: One difference between plants and animals is that plants do not consist of the digestive system while animals do. Question 2: How does respiration take place in plants and animals? Answer 2: In plants, it occurs through stomata. Whereas, in animals, it occurs through lungs, gills, skin and more.


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