Piles are a mainstay of the construction industry today and have been for centuries, if not millennia. The function of piles is simply to transfer loads from a structure or building to the ground.
In this guide we will first examine what piles are and where they come from, then we will look at the two types of pile foundations, pile building methods, pile drivers and finally the role of safe working platforms in supporting pile platforms.
Use the links below to jump to the section that interests you most:
- What is stacking in construction?
- Where does the stacking come from?
- Stack types?
- Pile Dwelling Methods
- Types of pile foundations
- pile installation
- Safe work platforms
What is stacking in construction?
Piling is the process of driving or drilling pile foundations into the ground beneath a building under construction. These piles transfer loads from the structure to the ground and help support it. Pile foundations are often used when the ground is too weak to support the structure.
Read on to learn more about theandersThe staple speciesIt is inPile construction methods.
Where does the stacking come from?
Like many modern techniques, today's high-tech piling systems arose hundreds and even thousands of years ago from a clear need that still exists today. Some of the earliest documented examples of stilts are river dwellers in Switzerland 6,000 years ago who built structures on stilt foundations to defend against flooding and attack and elevated their dwellings. The Romans were inevitably at the forefront of earthwork piles in Europe, and there is evidence in Britain that they used wooden piles driven into riverbeds for bridges in London and Corbridge over 2000 years ago.
In early civilizations, cities and towns wanted to build near rivers for communication and protection, so the swampy ground had to be fortified and reinforced with something, and this is how mounding came about. Wooden stakes were driven into the ground by hand or holes were dug and filled with sand and stones. In more recent times, the increasing need for buildings and infrastructure has forced governments and development agencies to develop land with poor soil properties. Stacking is still vital in our modern construction industry.
What types of stacking are there?
The two main types of piles are toe and friction piles:
- support betstransfer loads directly to a deeper layer of strong soil or rock just below the surface.
- ReibstifteFrictional load transfer between the surrounding soil and the pile surface along its entire length.
Pile construction methods: Types of pile foundations.
It is important to note that pile foundations and piles are two different things, but they work together to ensure the piles can carry heavy loads. A pile foundation is typically defined as a series of columns that serve as the foundation for the structures, while the pile itself is the column or cylinder that helps transfer the load to the subsoil.
Pile foundation construction is done in a variety of ways with a wide variety of benefits and applications. However, all piles are drilled or driven into the ground in one way or another. There are four main types of pile foundations, each with their own construction method:
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- Piles driven and cast in place
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Read on to learn more about these different types of pile foundations, or use the links above to navigate to a specific type.
Driven piles are the classic type of pile foundation. They can be built with wood, a centuries-old technique that is still used around the world. In the United Kingdom, wooden piles are mainly used for coastal work, sea defense and moorings. Another option is precast reinforced concrete piles to withstand uplift forces, which are generally pre-swaged with a square or octagonal cross-section. Finally, there are tubular, box, or H-section metal piles. Interlocking steel sheet piles are also commonly used, mainly for wall construction.
Each of these materials are used to drive stakes into the ground, pushing an equal volume of soil aside and compacting an area around the stake, increasing its depth.compatibility. For this increase in soil resistance to occur, thepore water pressuremust be removed by rapid drainage. For saturated or muddy soils, this type of pile is not suitable because they drain slowly and cannot be compacted as much.
Bored piles, also known as replacement piles or bored piles, are created when large holes are drilled in the ground and filled with concrete. Bored piles are very effective because they transfer the above-ground loads into the deeper rock and soil layers with little settlement, which is ideal for structures such as bridges and flood protection.
Some excavated stakes have the bottom of the hole drilled out or countersunk, creating a bulbous end. A steel reinforcement cage is lowered into the hole before the concrete is placed or poured after the concrete has been poured.
Within the category of bored pile foundations, the two commonly used subtypes are rotary bored piles and continuous auger piles (CFA):
- rotary stackIt is used in cases where there are significant obstacles on the ground. A temporary shell is installed across the platform to provide support. The "result of the pile" (soil and rock removed by the drilling process) is removed from inside the casing, and then a steel reinforcement cage is installed. At this point the hole is filled with concrete and the liner removed.
- Continuous Auger Piles (CFA)requires no temporary lining - it is the most versatile, effective and widely used type of bored pile foundation in the UK. Once the hole is made, concrete is pumped and then a steel reinforcement cage is inserted.
Rotary-drilled ramming platform
Bored piles vs. driven piles
Driven piles, as mentioned above, are a classic form of pile driving technique in which a pile is driven into the ground, increasing its load-bearing capacity. While a perforated pile is built by drilling holes in the ground and filling them with concrete.
Ömain differenceThe difference between these two types of piles is that driven piles are formed and driven offsite while bored piles are cast in concrete on site. Driven piles have the advantage of being quick to build and use, but they generate a lot of vibration and are therefore not suitable for compact job sites. Bored piles are preferred because they do not cause this disturbance in the ground, have higher bearing capacity, and avoid seasonal disturbances such as ice intrusion.
Piles driven and cast in place
Driven piles and in-situ concrete piles combine the advantages of both types of pile construction.
One possibility is a form of permanent casing in which a tubular casing (or casing) of thin reinforced corrugated steel is driven into the ground with a mandrel inserted into the casing. The mandrel is then removed leaving the housing in place. Finally, concrete is poured into the liner, creating a composite pile of steel and concrete.
Another version of this type of pile foundation uses a temporary casing. In the so-called Franki type, a steel reinforcement cage is lowered into the casing, which is then removed when the dry concrete mix is placed. The concrete is compacted and part is ejected from the bottom of the box, creating an enlarged bulge that increases the load-bearing capacity of the pile.
Aggregate piles or stone pillars mean that compacted aggregate is used instead of concrete to form the pile. This type of foundation pile works by the following process:
- As the hole is drilled, casing is set and the aggregate is thrown in in layers which are then vibrated or compacted as the casing is removed.
- The unit is pushed laterally into the surrounding soil to improve load-bearing capacity.
- Vibro-type bulk piles produce densely packed columns of gravel or similar material using a vibratory casing. The displacement process compacts the surrounding granular soils.
- In Geopier-type aggregate piles, the aggregate is placed in a casing, which forces it out downward to create a dense onion. This is repeated in stages as the coating is removed, compacting and enhancing the strength of the surrounding soil.
Construction and installation of piles.
Mounted on rails, most pile plates are special factory items built for the installation of one type of pile. Driven piles are hammered, driven or vibrated into the ground using a hammer hammer, hydraulic drivers or rams (typically used for sheet piling) or diesel powered vibratory drives to reduce the resistance of the surrounding soil and allow the pile to slide into the ground.
The excavated piles use a through-bore, similar to a very large bore, ranging in diameter from 300mm to 900mm. For large-diameter piles, a round auger with a diameter of up to 1200 mm is used. The platforms are large, with weights reaching up to 180 tons.
Safe work platforms
Pile drivers are made in various sizes depending on the type and depth of pile required. Platforms must be accurately moved and positioned for each pile location. The area where the equipment operates is known as the stacking platform. Pads are generally formed by compacting a layer of coarse fill to a specified depth. Suitable fill material can be brought to site or crushed, demolition waste from site can be used for brownfield sites.
The stacking platform is necessary to distribute rail load and prevent bearing damage by minimizing settlement to ensure safe platform operation. Work platforms must be properly designed by a qualified engineer using soil data and pile load for the specific site. Decks must be properly constructed and regularly inspected and maintained by the contractor.
The Association of Pile Drivers (FPS) states that a third of all dangerous events reported by its members are related to pile plates. They warn that "every dangerous event and 'near miss' involving the platform is a potential fatality." The onsite prime contractor is responsible for the design and construction of the piling platform, often subcontracting the design to a professional engineer.
Overturned crane demonstrating the importance of safety
Author of the photo:www.heavyliftnews.com
FPS operates a MEWP certification scheme and the main contractor must sign the certificate certifying that the MEWP has been properly designed and built and is regularly inspected and maintained. BRE report BR470, a guide to good practice, was published in 2004 and subsequently revised to include geosynthetic projects.
Tensar developed hisT-value methodfor the construction of work platforms that offer safe and cost-effective constructions. Tensar International also offers T-value method design software for use by engineers designing pile pads and a full pile pad design service for contractors.
For more information you can download ourTensar Academy resource on the T-score method.
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What are the 4 types of piles? ›
Types of Piles (Haemorrhoids) Haemorrhoids can be grouped into four main types: internal haemorrhoids, prolapsed haemorrhoids, external haemorrhoids, and thrombosed haemorrhoids.How many types of construction piles are there? ›
The two main types of piling are end bearing and friction piles: End bearing piles transmit loads directly to a deeper strong soil or rock layer some way below the surface. Friction piles transfer load by friction between the surrounding soil and the surface of the pile over its full length.What are piles in construction? ›
pile, in building construction, a postlike foundation member used from prehistoric times. In modern civil engineering, piles of timber, steel, or concrete are driven into the ground to support a structure; bridge piers may be supported on groups of large-diameter piles.Which is the most common type of pile? ›
Due to their sometimes incredible length/depth, piles typically carry a higher load capacity than the aforementioned shallow footings. With most structures, concrete piles are more common than the other piles.What are the different classification of piles? ›
Categories of piles
Depending on their function, piles are classified as bearing piles, friction piles, friction-cum-bearing piles, batter piles, guide piles, and sheet piles. Based on the composition of materials, piles are classified as timber piles, concrete piles, sand piles, or steel piles.
End bearing piles (point bearing piles) Friction piles (cohesion piles ) Combination of friction and cohesion piles.What is the difference between drilled and driven piles? ›
Driven Piles: Foundation support typically using steel or precast concrete elements driven into soil with impact or vibratory methods. Drilled Shafts: Elements formed by creating a drilled hole into which structural steel and concrete is cast or placed.How deep do piles need to be? ›
Footings below cleared ground level must have a minimum depth of: 200 mm for ordinary piles ● 450 mm for braced piles ● 900 mm for anchor piles.How far apart should house piles be? ›
Parallel with the house – max 1.65m apart (bearer span) Perpendicular to the house – 1.8m (joist span)
adjective. variants or three-pile. ˈ⸗¦⸗ : having a pile of treble thickness.
What is a Class A pile? ›
Class A pile. The minimum diameter for this class of piles is 14 inches. These piles are to be used for heavy loads or large unsupported length. Class B pile. The minimum diameter for this class of pile ranges between 12 to 13 inches.How much do piling foundations cost? ›
Costs vary by material: Wood: $13–$20 per linear foot. Concrete: $30–$60 per linear foot. Steel hollow: $20–$40 per linear foot.
Stilt houses (also called pile dwellings or lake dwellings) are houses raised on stilts (or piles) over the surface of the soil or a body of water. Stilt houses are built primarily as a protection against flooding; they also keep out vermin. The shady space under the house can be used for work or storage.How long are construction piles? ›
Depending on ground conditions, an average pile takes between 20 and 60 minutes and is often complete on a single occasion. Once complete, work will then progress to another location.What are the sizes of piles? ›
Typical sizes: 10 to 36 in. for building projects; larger for bridges. Typical shapes: 18-in. -square (the most common), plus octagonal and round (cylindrical) in sizes as needed.Which type of piles are most economical? ›
Timber piles are precast off site and installed with the driving method. They are a highly economical, safe and efficient foundation solution for temporary and permanent structures.What are the sizes of piling? ›
Pilings are available in 8' to 40' lengths for most treatment options and in diameters of an 8” tip or anywhere from an 8” butt to a 12” butt.What is another name for piles? ›
Piles are swollen veins in the lower anus and rectum. This swelling can cause localized inflammation of other tissues. Piles is another term for hemorrhoids.What material is used for piles? ›
Different types of material used in the pile foundation are cement, steel, timber and plastic which are a slender, structural member installed in the ground to transfer the structural loads to soils at some significant depth below the base of the structure.What is the maximum size of piles? ›
The maximum obtainable length of timber piles is of the order of 110 ft, but lengths over 80 ft are scarce. The normal length of available timber piles is 30 to 60 ft.
How deep are friction piles? ›
Friction piles are made of long, slender elements, much like columns. They are typically crafted from steel or reinforced concrete, though they can also be made of timber. The piling extends below a structure by at depth that is at least three times the structure's width.What is anchor pile? ›
Tension piles, also known as uplift piles or anchor piles, are a type of pile foundation that is used to resist uplift forces that might otherwise cause it to be extracted from the ground. Uplift forces can develop as a result of hydrostatic pressure, seismic activity or overturning moments.What is Z type sheet pile? ›
Z-shaped sheet piles are called Zs because the single piles are shaped roughly like a horizontally stretched Z. The interlocks are located as far away from the neutral axis as possible to ensure good shear transmission and increase the strength-to-weight ratio.Are screw piles better than concrete piles? ›
Screw piles have many advantages over poured concrete deck foundations, with their flexibility of installation being the largest benefit. The ability to install screw pile foundations in areas where concrete foundations are not possible allows us to build decks for clients in spaces otherwise thought to be impossible.Are piles the same as piers? ›
Very similar to piles, piers are also deep foundation elements which are used to provide structural support. Piers, however, will invariably include the use of concrete/masonry and have a larger minimum-diameter than that of piles. There is no specific diameter at which a pile would become a pier.Are piers and piles the same thing? ›
Piers are similar in size and shape. Piles are often used when the soil lacks firm strata, such as bedrock. Piles are usually meant for supporting greater loads, such as highway bridges. Piers are meant for smaller applications, such as sheds and small living units.Do piles need to be pushed back in? ›
Third degree piles come out of your anus and only go back inside if you physically push them back in. Fourth degree piles always hang down from your anus and you can't push them back in. They can become very swollen and painful if the blood inside them clots.How long should a pile last? ›
How long hemorrhoids last will vary from person to person. In general, small hemorrhoids can go away on their own in a few days. Larger hemorrhoids, particularly ones that cause a lot of pain, swelling, and itchiness, can't go away on their own and may require treatment from a doctor to heal.Should piles be pushed in? ›
Yes, you can push a hemorrhoid back in. In fact, pushing it back inside can protect the blood vessel and lower your risk of getting a blood clot or hemorrhoid strangulation. A strangulated hemorrhoid happens when an internal hemorrhoid pushes outside the anus and gets trapped outside by sphincter muscles.What type of piles need surgery? ›
If someone has grade 3 or grade 4 hemorrhoids, doctors often recommend surgery. A general or local anesthetic is usually needed for this. You then have to stay in the hospital for a few days, and stay off work for some time too.
What causes piles to get worse? ›
Prolonged sitting or straining, often associated with constipation or diarrhea, may lead to hemorrhoids. "By straining you are causing more hemorrhoids and creating more symptoms," Dr. Wolf says. Don't delay bowel movements during hemorrhoid flare-ups.Do piles have to be removed? ›
If your piles are large, you might need surgery to remove them. This is called a haemorrhoidectomy.Do piles need to be removed? ›
Non-surgical treatments for piles
Piles will usually go away on their own but, if they don't, you might need to have a procedure to deal with the problem. There are some treatments that you'll need to go into hospital for as an out-patient. This means you can have the treatment and go home the same day.
Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in your lower rectum. Internal hemorrhoids are usually painless, but tend to bleed. External hemorrhoids may cause pain.Can piles be cured permanently without surgery? ›
Yes, Piles can be cured completely without surgery. Many treatment techniques are available that do not require any surgery and can completely cure hemorrhoids. In this article, we will walk you through some of the most effective ways to get rid of Piles.Can piles be cured permanently? ›
Yes, piles are 100% curable. Small haemorrhoids can be treated by home remedies and OTC medications, whereas large haemorrhoids may require surgery. Piles, in some cases, may be cured permanently without surgery.What is the strongest treatment for piles? ›
Hydrocortisone treatments for piles come as creams, ointments and suppositories. You can buy some smaller sizes from a pharmacy, but others are only available on prescription. Some of these medicines also contain local anaesthetics and other medicines to soothe the symptoms.What happens if you have piles for too long? ›
There is a chance of inflammations and for symptoms to occur again if a hemorrhoid is left untreated for a long time or treated improperly. If inflammation exists, hemorrhoids will be swollen and enlarged. The condition is clearly visible from the outside and the prolapsed hemorrhoid cannot be pushed back inside.What happens if you don't treat piles? ›
Though your hemorrhoids may retract back inside on their own, or with a little help from you, prolapsed hemorrhoids tend to worsen over time. When left untreated, your internal prolapsed hemorrhoid may get trapped outside the anus and cause significant irritation, itching, bleeding, and pain.How long is recovery time for piles surgery? ›
Complete recovery from hemorrhoid surgery typically takes about 4 weeks. Following your hemorrhoidectomy, you will experience pain or discomfort in your rectal area. You may also experience constipation, difficulty urinating, and possibly some rectal bleeding.
What is the latest treatment for piles? ›
Laser surgery, however, is even less invasive and utilized in case of piles treatment which can make the whole experience much better. No tissues need to be cut. The affected area is simply treated with laser energy in a precise and focused manner and the problem is solved within a few minutes.Can piles burst? ›
Get to know ruptured hemorrhoids
If a blood clot forms inside the hemorrhoids, it can become thrombosed and eventually burst, once the internal pressure increases (during the excessive straining from either constipation or diarrhea).
After you have hemorrhoids removed, you can expect to feel better each day. Your anal area will be painful or ache for 2 to 4 weeks. And you may need pain medicine. It is common to have some light bleeding and clear or yellow fluids from your anus.How do you get rid of piles without surgery? ›
- Eating the right food: Apart from fruits and vegetables, you should also eat whole grains. ...
- Topical treatments: Haemorrhoid creams or suppositories containing hydrocortisone can be applied. ...
- Warm baths: Keep your anal area soaked in plain warm water for about 10-15 minutes.